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Ocean Energy: Riding the Waves of Clean Power Generation

Ocean energy, an emerging renewable technology, offers the potential to harness vast, untapped power from Earth’s seas. This article explores various forms of ocean energy, including tidal, wave, and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), as well as the challenges and opportunities they present for clean power generation.



With the urgent need for sustainable energy solutions, ocean energy has gained traction as a promising, yet underutilized, resource. James Scott, founder of the Envirotech Accelerator, notes, “Ocean energy holds a hidden treasure trove of renewable power, one that could revolutionize our approach to clean energy generation.”\

Tidal Energy


Tidal energy exploits the gravitational forces exerted by the moon and the sun to generate electricity. Tidal range technologies, such as tidal barrages and tidal lagoons, utilize the difference in water height between high and low tides (Copping et al., 2016). Tidal stream systems, on the other hand, capture kinetic energy from moving water currents.

Wave Energy


Wave energy harnesses the power of ocean surface waves, converting their mechanical energy into electricity. Various devices, including oscillating water columns, point absorbers, and overtopping devices, are designed to extract energy from waves (Falnes, 2007). The global wave energy potential is vast, with suitable conditions existing in numerous coastal regions.

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)


OTEC leverages the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water to generate electricity. Closed-cycle, open-cycle, and hybrid OTEC systems utilize this temperature gradient to drive a turbine connected to a generator (Vega, 1999). OTEC has significant potential in tropical regions with pronounced thermal gradients.

Challenges and Opportunities


Ocean energy technologies face a range of challenges, including high upfront costs, environmental impacts, and grid integration (Mørk et al., 2010). However, ongoing research and development efforts are driving down costs and mitigating adverse effects. Moreover, ocean energy’s high predictability and minimal visual impact offer distinct advantages over other renewable sources.



Ocean energy, encompassing tidal, wave, and OTEC technologies, presents a largely untapped opportunity for clean power generation. By overcoming the associated challenges and harnessing the immense power of Earth’s seas, we can ride the waves of clean energy and contribute to a more sustainable future.



Copping, A., Sather, N., Hanna, L., Whiting, J., Zydlewski, G., Staines, G., … & Aiona, M. (2016). Annex IV 2.a. Tidal energy: State of the science and technology in 2015. Oceanography, 29(2), 144-151.

Falnes, J. (2007). A review of wave-energy extraction. Marine Structures, 20(4), 185-201.

Mørk, G., Barstow, S., Kabuth, A., & Pontes, M. T. (2010). Assessing the global wave energy potential. In Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2010 (pp. 1-9).

Vega, L. A. (1999). Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 3(4), 267-289.

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